JAMES JOYCE (1882-1941)

“History, Stephen said, is a nightmare from which I am trying to awake.” ― James Joyce, Ulysses     BIOGRAPHY James Joyce was born in Dublin in 1882 - as was quite typical of Irish catholic families in those times his too was a large family - and died in Switzerland in 1941. He attained his education, first in … Continue reading JAMES JOYCE (1882-1941)

VIRGINIA WOOLF (1882-1941)

 "Here came the sun, an illimitable rapture of joy, embracing every flower, every leaf. Then in compassion it withdrew, covering its face, as if it forebore to look on human suffering." Virginia Woolf, from "Between the Acts" BIOGRAPHY Virginia Adelina Stephen was born in London in 1882. Her father, Leslie Stephen, was a well-known and … Continue reading VIRGINIA WOOLF (1882-1941)


BIOGRAPHY E. M. Forster was born in London in 1879 and died in Coventry in 1970. As a child he was educated by his mother and did not attend regular school until he was eleven when he was sent, first to Eastbourne and later to Tonbridge School. He then attended King's College in Cambridge, here he … Continue reading EDWARD MORGAN FORSTER (1879-1970)


MODERNISM 'Philosophy is a battle against the bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language. ... The meaning of a word is its use in the language.' The literary and the cultural atmosphere of the 20th century were characterized by deep change. Generally, labelled as Modernism, it shattered a whole system of ideas and beliefs … Continue reading LITERATURE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

JOSEPH CONRAD (1857-1924)

  The belief in a supernatural source of evil is not necessary; men alone are quite capable of every wickedness. - http://www.bestquotes.com http://www.telegraph.co.uk BIOGRAPHY Conrad was born in Poland and his real name was Teodor Jozef Konrad Nolesz Korzenioski. His country had been under foreign rule since 1795 and his father was a very active … Continue reading JOSEPH CONRAD (1857-1924)


The First World War was formally triggered by the royal assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, at the hand of a Serbian nationalist terrorist Gavrilo Princip on June 28th 1914. Underneath the official standpoints that immediately brought Russia on the side of Serbia and against Austria, it is … Continue reading WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II


  LEADING TO WORLD WAR I King Edward VII (1901-1910)  came to the throne at his mother’s death in 1901. He readily made noticeable changes in court life. Victoria’s reign, especially towards the end, had taken a turn for a gloomy and sad atmosphere as if the Queen had never really recovered from the mourning … Continue reading THE TWENTIETH CENTURY