Before introducing this last group of Romantic Poets, the one known as that of the Second Generation, it is necessary to underline the political and historical issues that greatly influenced not only the public debate in Britain, but these artists' stand points and outlook as well, so as to understand their literary works and sources … Continue reading THE SECOND GENERATION ROMANTIC POETS


FIRST GENERATION ROMANTIC POETS The beginning of the British Romantic Movement is generally considered to have been marked by the collection of poems titled Lyrical Ballads, first published in 1798, most of the poems of this first edition belonged to William Wordsworth, while only  four were contributed by Samuel T. Coleridge, among which, one of his … Continue reading FIRST GENERATION ROMANTIC POETS – WILLIAM WORDSWORTH AND SAMUEL T. COLERIDGE


BIOGRAPHY   MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT SHELLEY (1797-1851) was born in London, daughter of two eminent figures of the English intellectual circle of that time, in fact her father was the philosopher WILLIAM GODWIN (1756-1836) and her mother, who died ten days after her birth, MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797) had been a writer and a fervent feminist activist who … Continue reading MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT SHELLEY (1797-1851)


  BIOGRAPHY William Blake (1757-1827) was born in London to a very humble family, at a very young age he was sent as an apprentice to an engraver for whom he spent several months at Westminster copying the abbey’s monuments and where he acquired his taste for the marvellous medieval gothic architectural style of the abbey, along with … Continue reading WILLIAM BLAKE 1757-1827

THOMAS GRAY 1716-1771

  THOMAS GRAY (1716-1771), was born in Cornhill, London. He belonged to the well-off middle class - his father was a scribe and his mother owned a shop of hats and bonnets - allowing him to attend Eton for his studies where he came in contact with many aristocrats of the time and was very close to Horace Walpole, … Continue reading THOMAS GRAY 1716-1771


For studying convenience purposes we will divide the ROMANTIC AGE in three separate sections, the first combines those authors that are normally considered EARLY ROMANTIC AGE writers, followed by the FIRST GENERATION OF ROMANTIC POETS and, finally, with the SECOND GERNERATION OF ROMANTIC POETS. Before focussing on each EARLY ROMANTIC AGE writer, what follows is a brief outline of all … Continue reading EARLY ROMANTIC AGE – OUTLINE


Literary Outlook and Themes The last thirty years of the 18th century paved the way to the Romantic Age introducing new ideas and different perspectives. Richardson, in his novels, had already anticipated the themes that would be further developed in poetry as it was to become, once more, prevalent over prose writing. The most important … Continue reading THE ROMANTIC AGE


Unlike the previous writers of the Augustan Age, Richardson came from a humble background, he was not very educated and, while still very young, he was sent to London to work as an apprentice by a printer. He soon learned to master the job and started his own successful business; he became printer of the Journal … Continue reading SAMUEL RICHARDSON (1689-1761)

JONATHAN SWIFT (1667-1745)

JONATHAN SWIFT (1667-1745) Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin of English parents, he did not do well as a student but he was eventually granted his degree by “Special Grace”. In his early twenties he obtained a post as secretary for Sir William Temple, who was a Whig Member of Parliament and patron of letters … Continue reading JONATHAN SWIFT (1667-1745)

“Molly Becomes a Thief”, D. Defoe – HOMEWORK

Questions on Textual Analysis Four Open Questions: answer briefly, no more than 10 lines for each question. It has been said that with this new novel, unlike he did in his renowned masterpiece, Defoe begins to question the standpoints of the British middle class, point out in the text how he does so. What does the protagonist consider … Continue reading “Molly Becomes a Thief”, D. Defoe – HOMEWORK